Japanese Journal of Human Geography Vol.74 No.4 (2022)

Vol.74 No.4 (2022)

Contents

Research Notes

OSHIMA Akira
Changes in Residential Distribution of Bearers in the Portable Shrine Parade Festival:
A Case Study of the Kasuga Festival in Saiin, Kyoto City (389)

KURIBAYASHI Azusa
The Development of Intergenerational Homeshare and Its Use by Students:
Focusing on the “Kyoto Solidaire Project” (409)

KURATA Noriko
Forced Migration due to Building Evacuations in Kyoto City During the Pacific War:
An Analysis of Relationship Between Household Characteristics and Relocation Destinations(429)


Book Reviews (448)

Meeting Reports (462)

Miscellany (466)

Announcement for Proposals for Regular Meetings in 2023 (475)

Notices (477)

Index (479)


Abstract

Changes in Residential Distribution of Bearers in the Portable Shrine Parade Festival:
A Case Study of the Kasuga Festival in Saiin, Kyoto City

OSHIMA Akira
Post-Master’s Research Student, Ritsumeikan University

In regional shrine festivals, the bearers are no longer necessarily local parishioners. As an example, this paper aims to clarify the changes in the bearers’ residency at the Kasuga Festival in Saiin, Kyoto City. Lists of portable shrine bearers from 1967 and 2016 were used as a reference material, and locations of their residences were analyzed individually. At the beginning of the modern era, the shrine’s parish was divided into two parts, east and west, and many bearers carried each portable shrine within each area. With the urbanization that began around the time of the merger with Kyoto City, the number of bearers started to decrease. After the Second World War, there was an increase in population inflow through urbanization. However, the number of people who joined the bearers was small, and the survival of the portable shrine parade festival was in crisis. In response, the Kyoto Mikoshi Enthusiasts Association was established as an organization for cooperation, and bearers for the portable shrines were introduced from outside the area. As a result, the portable shrine parade festival was able to continue. As most supporters came from outside the area, it became a challenge for the shrine parishioners to maintain control of the portable shrine parade. Consequently, the shrine parishioners’ organization tried to increase its strength. Subsequently the number of shrine parishioners increased in 2016. Their residential areas were expanded not only to the settlement from before modern times but also to the entire shrine parish area and even as far afield as Nagano Prefecture.

Key words: Kasuga Festival, shrine parish, urbanization, list of portable shrine bearers, wakaju (young people for Kasuga festival), Kyoto Mikoshi Enthusiasts Association


The Development of Intergenerational Homeshare and Its Use by Students: Focusing on the “Kyoto Solidaire Project”onsidering Overseas Emigration in Early Twentieth-century Okinawa: The Case of Nakaoshi District, Haneji Village

KURIBAYASHI Azusa
Graduate Student, School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo

This paper focuses on intergenerational homeshare as a type of accommodation that has potential to alleviate the financial and psychological burdens of starting university and student life. It explores the possibilities and challenges of the Kyoto Solidaire Project, which promotes intergenerational homeshare, from the perspective of its development and the actual situation of the students who use it. The Kyoto Solidaire Project consists of four main participants: the prefectural government, matching service providers, students, and elderly people. Towards gaining the trust of elderly persons and students, the government and matching providers play a major role. Students who start living in a homeshare usually do so in the middle of their student life rather than at the time of starting university. This is due to differences in information students have and reliability from matching providers. Furthermore, the students who start an intergenerational homeshare change their lives due to the financial, psychological, and temporal benefits created by home sharing and their relationship with the elderly persons involved. From this perspective, this paper concludes that an intergenerational homeshare can be a home, namely a supportive environment for students as it provides psychological support, a personal relationship, and a place where they feel comfortable. However, in the context of starting university and student life, the home in intergenerational homeshare is variable. In addition, this paper argues that attention should be paid to educational spaces that encompass not only housing but also provide a home environment in which students can comfortably concentrate on their learning.

Key words: intergenerational homeshare, attending university, student life, Kyoto Solidaire Project, home, Kyoto prefecture


Forced Migration due to Building Evacuations in Kyoto City During the Pacific War: An Analysis of Relationship Between Household Characteristics and Relocation Destinations

KURATA Noriko
Graduate student, School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University

Throughout history, forced migration has occurred in many parts of the world, where people are forced to leave their residents and homelands against their will. There are various factors that cause forced migration, including conflicts such as wars and ethnic feuds, natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods, and land development. People who are forced to migrate often suffer from economic deprivation and identity issues, and this has become a global problem. One example is the building evacuation that took place in various parts of Japan at the end of the Pacific War. This study focused on building evacuation in Kyoto City and explored the relationship between the social attributes of forced evacuees and their relocation sites. To determine the destinations of forced evacuees, Kyoto Prefecture’s administrative documents were analyzed, and interviews to examine the factors that determined their destinations were conducted. As a result, it is suggested that the factors determining where to relocate were mainly local connections, such as family and occupational relationships. Many forced evacuees relocated within Kyoto City, but the households which departed from Kyoto City often consisted of individuals with certain characteristics–namely singles and households with female or unemployed heads; probably they were socially vulnerable. This tendency was more pronounced just before the end of the war. As the economic situation became more severe, households which relocated further away were mainly consisted of many socially vulnerable people.

Key words: forced migration, building evacuation, family structure, The Pacific War, Kyoto City

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