Vol.73 No.2 (2021)
Expansion of Major Poultry Companies into North India and Adoption of Broiler Farming in Haryana (137)
ARAI W. Sachiho, ORO Kohei, and OKUMA Mizuha
Dynamics of Local Labor Markets and Agricultural Structures in the Okinawa Remote Islands:
A Comparative Study of Tarama Island and Yonaguni Island (159)
Development and Issues of Local Studies in Japanese Geography Education Post World War II:
Focusing on the Practice of the “Local Area” Unit in Junior High School Geography Courses (181)
Book Reviews (202)
Meeting Reports (232)
Expansion of Major Poultry Companies into North India and Adoption of Broiler Farming in Haryana
Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hiroshima University
This paper examines the roles of major poultry companies in the expansion of broiler production into North India and the mechanisms of adoption of broiler farming in Haryana. North India was behind in the development of agribusiness and broiler production for decades, as its conditions were unsuitable for poultry farming. However, broiler production has grown rapidly since the 2000s because major poultry companies have expanded their production bases and spread improved breeds of broiler northward. Hence, the author surveyed 35 broiler farmers in Haryana. The results of the surveys revealed that farmers from the middle level castes who hold their own farmlands have adopted broiler farming. This means that the adoption of broiler farming is limited to specific farmers, since a large investment and extra farmland are needed to build the poultry sheds. Most of these farmers have introduced improved breeds, switched to direct transactions such as contract farming, and employed migrant workers. Such management strategies have enabled them to overcome the unsuitable conditions of North India. In Haryana, the private hatcheries affiliated with the major poultry companies have played important roles in spreading improved breeds into broiler farmers, unlike South India. However, the companies have carried out contract farming with young farmers, mirroring the production system of South India. Namely, the companies have combined the affiliation unique to North India with the contract farming enforced in South India to allow farmers to adopt broiler farming in Haryana.
Key words: agribusiness, major poultry company, improved breed, contract farming, broiler farmer, Haryana
Dynamics of Local Labor Markets and Agricultural Structures in the Okinawa Remote Islands: A Comparative Study of Tarama Island and Yonaguni Island
ARAI W. Sachiho
Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Faculty of Economics, Oita University
This paper considers conditions on small, remote islands, specifically Tarama Island and Yonaguni Island, as a part of an analysis of the relationship between Okinawan local labor markets and agricultural structures, with a focus on differences between regions within the prefecture. On Tarama Island, where the local labor market is underdeveloped, ties to Japanese economic trends are weak, and there has consistently been a clear lack of non-agricultural employment opportunities as well as a low wage level outside of agriculture. On Yonaguni Island, where the local labor market is relatively developed, the wages of non-agricultural employees are high and many people are regularly employed, but there is a limitation of non-agricultural employment opportunities; a trend that has worsened for the generations subsequent to those in the second sugar cane boom. The limited local labor markets have increased the significance of agricultural income, which lead many young people to work in the agricultural sector. On Tarama Island, given that the conditions for an increase in productivity within agriculture are in place, an agricultural structure tilted toward the upper and middle classes has formed. As a result the shortage of supply on agricultural land market has remained serious. On Yonaguni Island, because non-agricultural employment opportunities have existed in advance and agricultural productivity is less improving, young people working full-time in agriculture have emerged sporadically, and their accumulation of agricultural land has been realized with ease.
Key words: local labor market, agricultural structure, land market, Okinawa, remote islands
Development and Issues of Local Studies in Japanese Geography Education Post World War II: Focusing on the Practice of the “Local Area” Unit in Junior High School Geography Courses
Professor Emeritus, Nara University of Education
This article aims to clarify the state of development of local studies in Japanese junior high school geography education after World War II. The study examines (1) descriptions of the course of studies, (2) previous researches on educational practices in the “local area” unit, and (3) examples of educational practices that incorporated fieldwork in connection with the “local area” unit. The following results were obtained: First, the “local area” unit was included in all iterations of the course of study between 1958 and 2017. Second, previous researches indicates that topographic maps has been used extensively in recent educational practices in the “local area” unit; this is because questions on topographic maps has been often set on senior high school entrance examinations. Educational practices that incorporated fieldwork were found to be extremely rare. Many teachers cited the lack of lesson time across the year as a reason for not incorporating fieldwork. The fact that teaches can not identify topics that should be studied in the lesson of local area could be another reason for the absent of a practice of field work from the educational programs. Third, some examples of educational programs incorporating the practice of fieldwork into the “local area” unit show high educational level. Recent studies of geography education have suggested a specific teaching methods, that carefully chose the content, implementable for teaching local area within 50 minutes. In order to realize this, it is necessary to ensure adequate teacher education and training.
Key words: junior high school geography course, “local area” unit, fieldwork, problem-finding ability, teacher
education and training