Vol. 72 No. 4 2020
The Structure of Japanese Immigration Villages in Eastern Taiwan and Their Changes Under Japanese Rule (337)
Achievements and Issues of Studies on Accessibility Relating to Quality of Life: Trends Since the 1980s (361)
Overcoming the Issues of “Initial Shortcomings” by Residents of Large-Scale Housing Estates: An Example from Izumigaoka District in Senboku New Town (383)
Relationship Between Elementary School Meals and Communities: Examining School Lunch Systems and Dietary Education (403)
Book Reviews (424)
Meeting Reports (430)
Announcement for Proposals for Regular Meetings in 2021 (445)
The Structure of Japanese Immigration Villages in Eastern Taiwan and Their Changes Under Japanese Rule
College of Humanities, Chubu University
In the early 20th century, many Japanese settled into government-managed immigration villages in eastern Taiwan. In the original plan, these immigration villages were designed to distribute equal areas of housing and farmlands to settling families. This study clarified the details of the structure of Yoshino-mura and Toyota-mura, and investigated changes in their structure until the end of World War II. The cadasters revealed that the number of houses decreased until 1945 and some housing sites became general agricultural or paddy fields. Furthermore, some immigrants who owned land in these villages emigrated when the number of houses began decreasing because of the surrounding natural environment. However, in principle, land possession and transfer in both villages were limited to the original immigrants and their relatives only. At the time that the immigration villages were established, many immigrants resided in houses that were distant from those of their relatives because a lottery system used to distribute houses. Subsequently, relatives of these immigrants gradually came to live in the same neighborhood by acquiring housing sites belonging to the original immigrants who left the village, and landownership frequently changed in Yoshino-mura. On the other hand, ownership of farmlands around Toyota-mura, which was located in a harsh natural environment, was complicated when they were disposed of around 1933. In Toyota-mura, farmlands were often located a considerable distance from the landowner’s house. Moreover, landowners who remained in the village integrated the lands of the emigrants into their own after they abandoned them.
Key words: land concentration, Japanese immigration villages, emigrants of the Japanese immigration villages, cadastral materials, Hualien, Taiwan
Achievements and Issues of Studies on Accessibility Relating to Quality of Life: Trends Since the 1980s
JSPS Research Fellow, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University
Accessibility is regarded as a representative component of the quality of life (QOL), a concept used to evaluate the living conditions from various perspectives, including personal wealth, welfare, culture and environment. The trends of modern society, such as regional and personal difficulties in accessing various resources and opportunities caused by objective characteristics of living environment as well as individual socioeconomic status, and the development of information and communication technology (ICT) has diversified the techniques and targets of accessibility studies. Based on these, this paper reviewed the achievements and issues of studies that have been conducted since the 1980s on accessibility in daily lives. Consequently, we pointed out the following: first, urban and transport studies played a major role in accessibility studies focusing on mobility, and a set of analytical dimensions called the 5Ds was introduced. Second, medical geography contributed to studies focusing on the properties of destinations, such as spatial distribution, amount and type of resources, and opportunities. Novel accessibility measures accounting for the balance of supply and demand were developed and applied to various studies. Third, accessibility studies concerning individual attributes have diversified. Finally, some studies included future situations, intangible objects, or unfavorable places in their analyses. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential of these analytical methods, the potential for the application of existing research to policy, and discuss accessibility in relation to future social change. It is also important to discuss the differing individual values of accessibility to deepen our understanding of QOL.
Key words: accessibility, mobility, quality of life, societal application, future projection
Overcoming the Issues of “Initial Shortcomings”by Residents of Large-Scale Housing Estates: An Example from Izumigaoka District in Senboku New Town
Graduate student, School of Literature and Human Sciences, Osaka City University
While there is renewed population growth in the inner city, the declining population in aging suburban housing complexes is prominent. The conventional urban spatial structure is changing, and a new kind of social polarization is emerging in urban areas. Consequently, it is important to unravel the modern history of the suburban housing complex in its early days of development, while the problem of the suburban housing complex is under scrutiny. Therefore, this study assessed the “initial shortcomings” that emerged during the early stages of land preparation for the establishment of large-scale housing estates, and reviews how the residents overcame these shortcomings. Izumigaoka District in Senboku New Town, Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture, was selected as the primary site of research. Accordingly, the following two research questions were considered: As the residents resolve “initial shortcomings,” what impact does the planned built environment of the new town have on its residents?; and What types of residents act proactively to resolve the problems? During the early stage of land preparation for Senboku New Town, many “initial shortcomings” became apparent because Sakai City, which was responsible for the infrastructure provision, fell short of funds. Residents living in this prefectural housing estate during the early stages of land preparation, voiced their dissatisfaction at a neighborhood center or an assembly hall. As a result of their shared deliberations, the residents overcame the issue by forming residents’ organizations, such as neighborhood associations and interest groups, which acted independently, or through residents’ movements to demand infrastructural development from the regional government. The results also indicated that residents with earnest desires prioritized issues related to transportation and nursery schools.
Key words: initial shortcomings, neighborhood association, residents’ movements, suburban development, housing estate, Senboku New Town
Relationship Between Elementary School Meals and Communities: Examining School Lunch Systems and Dietary Education
Graduate student, School of Letters, Kyoto University
This article investigates the relationship between school meals and communities. We provide an overview of the changes in the role of school meals served in public elementary schools in Japan and examine which school lunch systems the Japanese municipalities choose, or how actively they impart dietary education to children through local foods or dishes. The results are as follows: First, the School Lunch Act in 2008 required schools to provide children with dietary education through using local foods and dishes in school meals. Second, 24.3% of Japanese municipalities have on-site kitchens for public elementary school meals, 57.8% have off-site kitchens, and 18.0% have both types of kitchens. While a number of municipalities in the Hokkaido, Tohoku, and Sanin regions have off-site kitchens, not all rural regions do, and some metropolitan regions also have off-site kitchens. Third, more than 80% of municipalities in the Kinki, Hokuriku, and Chugoku area use local ingredients in school meals, while only 20–40% of municipalities provide additional dietary education about the region through school meals. Moreover, while some prefectures actively impart dietary education, others do not. Fourth, there is suitable dietary education, depending on the school lunch system and the number of schoolchildren. Fifth, mergers of municipalities, the financial capability index, the number of schoolchildren, and the distribution of public elementary schools influenced, if not decisively, school lunch systems and dietary education.
Key words: school meals, dietary education, school lunch system, local foods, local dishes