Japanese Journal of Human Geography Vol.72 No.2 (2020)

Vol.72 No.2 (2020)

Contents

Articles

MATSUMIYA Yuko
Working Practices and Life Strategies of Ger Area Residents in Ulaanbaatar (107)

Research Note

MAEDA Ryuko
Analysis of Fishery Activities by Fixed Spot Method:
A Case in Fuke District, Misaki Town, Osaka Prefecture (131)

Focus

Trends and Characteristics of “Spatial Citizenship Education”:
Geography Education and Social Studies Education in Western Countries (149)
SAKAUE Hiroaki, WATANABE Takumi, OSAKA Yu, and OKADA Ryosuke

Book Reviews (162)

Miscellany (180)

Guidelines for Preparing the Manuscript for Submission (Revised on 11 April, 2020) (182)

Notices (188)


Abstract

Working Practices and Life Strategies of Ger Area Residents in Ulaanbaatar

MATSUMIYA Yuko
Graduate student, School of Arts and Letters, Meiji University

The purpose of this study is to understand how current life is related to past careers and future prospects by focusing on the lives of ger area residents. The labor market in Mongolia is characterized by multi-faceted gender biases and ageism. The methods and results of job searches are influenced by the educational background and applicable personal connections. Previous studies have decisively pointed out that in ger areas the household economy is characterized by precarity and instability. This article reveals that the residents’ types of work are considerably diverse; from miscellaneous informal labor to professional occupations. However, it is difficult to sustain the household economy without combining multiple sources of income. In order to maintain and improve their living standards, many households have members who practice various side jobs. The current living standards and future life prospects are influenced by the personal careers, which are constructed upon the past migration experiences and educational backgrounds. Households with wives who have migrated to Ulaanbaatar to enter university and have stable jobs tend to depict concrete prospects for the future. Some residents have worked or plan to work overseas in order to realize relocation to an apartment and to provide a good education for children. The making of their living of residents in ger areas is neither confined to Ulaanbaatar nor Mongolia, but transcends globally along with diverse and multi-layered social relationships. Considering the difference in potential to realize future prospects among the residents, this article also suggests the possibility of social stratification in Ulaanbaatar.

Key words: labor market, work history, academic background, ger areas, Ulaanbaatar Ferry


Analysis of Fishery Activities by Fixed Spot Method: A Case in Fuke District, Misaki Town, Osaka Prefecture

MAEDA Ryuko
Researcher, Graduate School of Humanities, Kwansei Gakuin University

The aim of this paper was to reveal how factors affect fishery activities, including gill net, basket fishing and trawling, in Fuke district, Misaki town, Osaka prefecture. In fieldwork, the author used the “Fixed Spot Method”, one of the time allocation methods. As a result, the author made it clear that management bodies conducted fishery activities that were affected by: 1) tidal pattern 2) wind force and direction, and 3) sunrise time, as natural factors. On the other hand, social and economic factors included: 1) fisheries activity time regulations and 2) the starting time of the auction. Preparing quantitative data regarding fishery activities is important for
formulating aquatic resource management plans for sustainable use. The Fixed Spot Method is effective to capture all boat activities in one port. However, there are some problems. For example, the study results are easily influenced by accidental events, because of the short study period. We should overcome the problem through the development of new methods for fieldwork.

Key words: fixed spot method, fishery activities, natural factors, socio-economic factors, fieldwork, Fuke district


Trends and Characteristics of “Spatial Citizenship Education”: Geography Education and Social Studies Education in Western Countries

SAKAUE Hiroaki
Center for Research in Advanced Teacher Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education

WATANABE Takumi
Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hiroshima University

OSAKA Yu
Faculty of Economics, Tokuyama University

OKADA Ryosuke
Center for Institutional Research, Educational Development, and Learning Support, Ochanomizu University

In recent years, Spatial Citizenship Education (SCE)—proposed as a counter draft of the classical geographic information system (GIS) education—has received much attention in geography and social studies education in Western countries. This research aimed to clarify the research trends and characteristics of SCE within Western geography and social studies education, by employing a literature review. SCE focuses on the key concepts of geography, i.e., space, place, scale, power, and human–environmental relationships, and aims to develop citizens who can participate in the social decision-making process. In doing so, the geo-media, i.e., geographical spatial information and GIS, are important. As concrete efforts to promote SCE, learning is not only comprised of using geo-media in primary and secondary education but also teacher education programs, such as competence and training curriculum for geography teachers. Based on this analysis, the contributions to Japanese geography and social studies education are as follows: 1) there is a need for geographers, geography educators, and social studies educators to tackle with SCE studies based on each researcher’s expertise and 2) it is necessary to promote research on teacher education.

Key words: geography education, social studies education, teacher education, geo-media, spatial citizenship education

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