Vol.71 No.2 (2019)
The Structure of Small-Scale Fisheries in Noto-Jima Island, Northcentral Japan: A Livelihood Portfolio Approach (127)
Longitudinal Data Analysis on Shopping Behaviors in Metropolitan Suburbs: A Case Study of the Residents of Heijo New Town, Nara City (151)
Secondary Education Reforms Since the 1990s and Their Geographical Impacts on Non-metropolian Areas: A Case Study of Oita City, Japan (167)
Book Reviews (184)
Meeting Reports (208)
The Structure of Small-Scale Fisheries in Noto-Jima Island, Northcentral Japan: A Livelihood Portfolio Approach
Graduate student, School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University; JSPS Research Fellow
According to the 2013 Fisheries Census in Japan, the ratio of part-time fishery households was 50.3%. In other words, more than half of the fishery households in Japan have jobs other than fishing. This study explores the structure of local small-scale fisheries in Japan through the lens of the livelihood portfolios of fishery households. The study area was Noto-Jima Island, located at the Noto peninsula, northcentral Japan. Noto-Jima Island is surrounded by a closed inner bay. The morphology of the bay means that the fishing grounds are calm and many types of fisheries can be operated throughout the year. Therefore, the fishing households operate diverse fisheries that reflect their specific household strategies. Furthermore, multimodal economic activities, such as agriculture, paid work, and tourism, are combined within these households. Thus, each household has developed diversified labor force allocations within the household. Consequently, our findings revealed that social, natural, and cultural conditions, such as ocean conditions, geographical features, norms, and working conditions, affect the decision-making process in every household. Based on the above, we conclude that small-scale fisheries in the study area rely on dynamic relationships between natural, social, and cultural elements, in addition to the fishery conditions themselves. Furthermore, it will be difficult to sustain the current structure of the local small-scale fisheries because of challenges, such as aging of the fishermen and/or changes in the working conditions of future generations. Under these circumstances, the findings of this study suggest that comprehensive management based upon the premise of diverse livelihood portfolios will be effective for sustaining local small-scale fisheries.
Key words: small-scale (household) fisheries, livelihood portfolios, environmental adaptation, Nanao-Bay, Noto-Jima Island
Longitudinal Data Analysis on Shopping Behaviors in Metropolitan Suburbs: A Case Study of the Residents of Heijo New Town, Nara City
Faculty of Letters, Nara University
Many studies have examined shopping behaviors in metropolitan suburbs through cross-sectional surveys. However, few studies have focused on longitudinal data. The present investigation collected long-term longitudinal data on the shopping behaviors of people residing in the suburbs of the Osaka metropolitan area. The study area comprised Heijo New Town in Nara city, an eastern suburb of the Osaka metropolitan area. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey. The results of the examination revealed that customers of luxury clothing maintained largely the same purchasing behavior up to the bubble economy period, purchasing from either Namba-Shinsaibashi (the higher-ranked central location in the Osaka metropolitan area) or from the vicinity of the Yamato-Saidaiji Station (the lower-ranked central neighborhood). After the collapse of economic bubble, the shopping share of the Namba-Shinsaibashi area decreased considerably. In 1980, customers still purchased convenience goods, such as everyday clothes, from department stores. However, after the 1980s, a general merchandise store was built in Heijo New Town, where the purchasing of everyday clothes increased. This paper demonstrates that the shopping behavior of suburban residents changed as the shopping environment in the metropolitan area transformed. Further, the manner in which customers altered their purchase behaviors differed, depending on the time they started living at their current residence.
Key words: metropolitan suburbs, shopping behavior, longitudinal data, luxury clothing, everyday clothing, Heijo New Town
Secondary Education Reforms Since the 1990s and Their Geographical Impacts on Non-metropolian Areas: A Case Study of Oita City, Japan
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the University of Tokyo
The purpose of this paper was to examine changes in the choice of senior high school (S.H.S.) among junior high school (J.H.S.) students and the consequent impacts on residential location choice as a result of secondary education reforms since the 1990s in non-metropolian areas. In 1995, Oita Prefecture changed the public S.H.S. entrance examination system from unified selection by several S.H.S.s to independent selection. This reform clearly strengthened the superiority of the top-rated A S.H.S. over second-rated B S.H.S. in the difficulty of their entrance examinations and admission results to prestigious universities. This also led to stratification between the public J.H.S.s, and f and b J.H.S.s developed greater proportions of graduates moving to A S.H.S. compared with the other surrounding J.H.S.s. In 2006 and 2007, three prefectural and private six-year secondary schools (C, L, and M) were newly established. As a result, many more children and parents paid attention to the J.H.S. entrance examinations than before, and these six-year secondary schools “cherry-picked” children with high academic skills. In 2009, Oita City introduced an adjoining school choice system in its compulsory education. Parents living outside the designated catchment areas of f and b J.H.S.s who hoped their children would enter them were required to win the spots through a highly competitive lottery. Consequently, they often chose to relocate to the designated catchment areas. These behaviors led to social polarization between and homogenization within the designated catchment areas of public J.H.S.s.
Key words: secondary education reform, residential location choice, parentocracy, Oita City