Vol.70 No.3 (2018)
Farmer’s Involvement in Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) in Africa: Farmer’s Involvement in Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) in Africa: A Case Study of the Geita Gold Mining Area in Tanzania (313)
Creation of Common Spaces in a Small City in Mediterranean Europe: Findings from Falset in the Catalan Mountainous Area (327)
2017 Annual Review
A Survey of Geographical Studies in Japan, 2017 (347)
Book Reviews (414)
Meeting Reports (434)
Farmer’s Involvement in Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) in Africa: A Case Study of the Geita Gold Mining Area in Tanzania
Graduate School of International Resource Sciences, Akita University
The purpose of this article is to examine how farmers perceive and utilize artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) as a means of livelihood. To this end, a study of ASM was carried out in the Geita mining area of Tanzania. The results showed that ASM is not necessarily perceived by farmers as a stable income source and that agriculture plays a core role in survival. The farmers continue to be engaged in agricultural activities to produce staple food for their daily consumption, even while generating income from mining activities. Income from ASM is then reinvested in agricultural activities, which becomes a risk absorber to avoid livelihood failure. The farmers deal with both agriculture and ASM at the same time, while making use of hired labor.
Key words: artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), agriculture, livelihood means, Tanzania
Creation of Common Spaces in a Small City in Mediterranean Europe: Findings from Falset in the Catalan Mountainous Area
School of Foreign Studies, Aichi Prefectural University
A city is a space where common value is generated from people and activities joining together. Shared use of urban space increases the quality of life, fostering a sense of attachment among the people participating in that experience. This research is an attempt to identify “common spaces” in urban life, i.e. those spaces where common values are expected to arise, and to illustrate the explicit and implicit institutions and processes that help people to activate such spaces. To this end, field research was conducted in Falset, a small Mediterranean city located in the Catalan mountainous area (Spain). The three main aspects analysed include the configuration of common spaces in urban planning, public-private arrangements and the common use of open-air spaces in festivities. As a result, we found common spaces working in a variety of urban settings, such as public streets, square galleries or public facilities. However, common space is not usually fixed in a specific architectural design, nor it is guaranteed by immutable legal regulations. Findings from our research in Falset show the importance of dynamic negotiation and agreements between private and public agents, as a fundamental factor aiding in the common enjoyment of urban space. The value of common space is intimately linked to the activities of the people in contact, whose shared experience may act as a catalyst for the city’s collective identity.
Key words: common space, public space, urban planning, Mediterranean city, Falset