Vol.65 No.6 (2013)
Special Issue : Ethnic Business Enclaves in Cities Part I
SUGIURA Tadashi Ethnic Town as a Place for Reproducing Ethnicity 4
FUKUMOTO Taku The Persistence of the Residential Concentration of Koreans in Osaka from 1950 to 1980 : Its Relation to Land Transfers and Home-work Relationships 15
KATAOKA Hiromi “Concentrated Ethnic Towns” and “Dispersed/Assimilated Ethnic Towns” : Regional Disparities in the Formation and Development of Ethnic Towns―Case Studies of Brazilian Residents in Japan 34
SAWA Munenori Spatial Reorganisation of the Indian Community Crossing Border :A Case Study of the Global City Tokyo 48
YAMASHITA Kiyomi A Comparative Study of Chinatowns around the World : Focusing on the Increase in New Chinese Immigrants and Formation of New Chinatowns 67
ARAMATA Miyo The Muslim Town in France : Difficulties and Possibilities 85
Ethnic Town as a Place for Reproducing Ethnicity
SUGIURA Tadashi Iwate University
In this paper, I will discuss the dynamic aspects of an ethnic town or an urban ethnic business enclave, particularly its developmental stages and changing function, and the nature of various processes occurring there, taking as examples the Japantowns on the West Coast of the United States of America that I have researched before. We assume that, within the principal stream of spatial assimilation, an ethnic town will emerge, grow, change, and decline typically through four stages―（1） germination stage, （2） agglomerated town stage, （3） business town stage, and （4） vestiges stage. Several specific effects of spatial concentration―that is, incubator, linkages, agglomeration, and focus―may operate to enhance ethnic businesses at each stage. As a sociocultural process, the symbolization to alleviate stress may occur in an ethnic town. The symbols become condensed, widely accepted, and sometimes politically formal, and structural or institutional changes may emerge to maintain the symbolic system, as the symbolization process progresses. The issues in the Japantowns are, in principal, consistent with the above assumptions. An ethnic town is a central business place embedded in the urban regional structure of a multi-ethnic city. An ethnic town is a place to live, to worship, to shop, to dine, to enjoy amusements, to work, to engage in many cultural activities. An ethnic town is also a place to perceive ethnicity, and a place to foster, enhance, and reproduce ethnicity. The ethnicity enhanced through these processes may serve as a significant parameter for future urban processes.
Key words: ethnic town, Japantown, ethnicity, ethnic business, symbolization
The Persistence of the Residential Concentration of Koreans in Osaka from 1950 to 1980 : Its Relation to Land Transfers and Home-work Relationships
FUKUMOTO Taku Miyazaki Sangyo-keiei University
Although numerous efforts have been made to investigate the various causes for spatial segregation, existing studies have tended to overlook home-work relationships, which may influence the （un）changed features of segregation. This study considers the persistence of Korean residential concentration in Osaka, Japan, with data obtained from land registration and directories of Korean businesses, and clarifies the effects stemming from non-movers and the home-work relationships of Koreans. It confirms that Koreans began to purchase the land on which they lived after the 1960s, and that this process seems to have resulted in a decrease in their residential mobility. At the same time, non-resident Koreans, who tended to live within ethnic concentrations, also obtained land therein. Moreover, information about mortgages indicates that a significant number of Korean landowners, whether residents or non-residents, were entrepreneurs and that the lands they held operated as a source of funds. However, the same information reveals that Koreans also frequently resorted to using Japanese financial institutions. Thus, it is worth noting that the persistence of ethnic concentration is not always linked with the apparent existence of ethnic-related resources.
Key words: ethnic segregation, home-work relationships, land transfers, ethnic resources, Korean residents in Japan
“Concentrated Ethnic Towns” and “Dispersed/Assimilated Ethnic Towns” : Regional Disparities in the Formation and Development of Ethnic Towns―Case Studies of Brazilian Residents in Japan
KATAOKA Hiromi Kinki Univercity
This paper examines the founding and development of two Brazilian ethnic towns in Japan following the 1990 amendment to the Immigration Act. The structures of these towns fall into two patterns. The first is the “concentrated ethnic town,” which comprises a dense cluster of ethnic businesses, making its ethnic character highly visible. The second is the “dispersed/assimilated ethnic town,” one whose ethnic nature is not evident. The factors that generate these variations include town scales, the locations of ethnic shops within business clusters, the division of social capital among entrepreneurs or between them and their host societies, and shop locations in relation to ethnic residential areas.
Key words: ethnic town, ethnic business, Brazilian residents, Hamamatsu City, Oizumi Town
Spatial Reorganisation of the Indian Community Crossing Border : A Case Study of the Global City Tokyo
SAWA Munenori Kobe University
The Indian community abroad has undergone many changes that are intimately linked to globalisation. This study examines the process of reorganisation during de-territorialisation and re-territorialisation under globalisation in relation to the national, regional, and local scales of Indian community abroad. The globalised economy has brought the cross-border expansion of labour markets to developed nations （especially in global cities）, while increasing the flow of emigrants from developing countries. This de-territorialisation of labour markets, created by the heightened mobility of labourers has increased the mobility of information between living in developed countries and their homelands. This situation is associated with the increased money transfers to India made by Indians from abroad, and the labourers who have invested in India to start businesses after having been successful abroad. Indians who have begun to settle in Tokyo require a local community as a living space. In response to the increased number of Indians living in Tokyo, the re-territoria lisation of local spaces has advanced through to the formation of local community in which Indian culture is re-embedded. In these migrant spaces, de-territorialisation and re-territorialisation advance simultaneously. Globalisation is a consequence of modernity. Time and space compression has rapidly progressed, and social actions within the context of national-, regional-, and local-scale spaces are positioned on a ranked spatial scale. As a result, de-territorialisation and re-territorialisation continue endlessly in each spatial scale. Through the aforementioned processes, space at each scale is gradually incorporated into a higher space, and, furthermore, into the global space.
Key words: globalisation, Indian community abroad, global city, Tokyo, India
A Comparative Study of Chinatowns around the World : Focusing on the Increase in New Chinese Immigrants and Formation of New Chinatowns
YAMASHITA Kiyomi University of Tsukuba
Because of an increase in new immigrants from mainland China along with remigration, global Chinatowns are undergoing major changes. This study classifies global Chinatowns into “Old Chinatowns” and “New Chinatowns,” based on previous fieldwork conducted by the author in Chinatowns all over the world and the results of other relevant research.
Among new Chinese immigrants and remigrants, groups that occupy low socioeconomic positions tend to flow into Old Chinatowns. Some Old Chinatowns are transforming into tourist areas, and Chinatown gates have been constructed as the predominant symbol of Chinatowns. The interrelationship between the ethnic Chinese population and the host society is highly relevant to the rise and fall of Chinatowns. There are even cases where once-declining Chinatowns have been “reconstructed” by governmental tourism development, such as Kobe Chinatown in Japan and Incheon Chinatown in South Korea. Many Old Chinatowns have become increasingly multiethnic, owing to an influx of ethnic groups other than ethnic Chinese or Indochina Chinese.
Suburban New Chinatowns have been formed in the USA, Canada, Australia, and other countries as a result of such factors as an influx of wealthy new immigrants from mainland China or of ethnic Chinese who become affluent, leave Old Chinatown, and move to the suburbs. In some cases also, New Chinatowns have been formed in downtown areas by new Chinese immigrants, such as Ikebukuro Chinatown in Tokyo and Belleville Chinatown in Paris. Furthermore, large-scale commercial center Chinatowns selling Chinese products have been formed in Eastern European countries such as Hungary, Romania, and Poland, and in areas of the Middle East like Dubai.
Key words: Chinatown, ethnic geography, ethnic town, overseas Chinese, ethnic Chinese
The Muslim Town in France : Difficulties and Possibilities
ARAMATA Miyo Keisen University
The most difficult aspect of the integration of migrants in France is the relationship between Islam and laïcité, which refers to the separation of church and state. In recent years, laws have been enacted prohibiting Muslim women from wearing the hijab or headscarf in public schools. In urban spaces, the visibility of Muslims also came into question, when, in the 1990s, collective street prayers began to take place in the Goutte d’Or district of Paris due to a lack of prayer space stemming from the urban renovation project that began in the 1980s. This district was thus strongly recognized as a Muslim town by French society, and it became a target for attacks by segregationist groups, sometimes under the laïcité slogan. As such, state law could be viewed as providing justification for the behavior of these groups. However, the city of Paris has sought to resolve the issue by overcoming the barriers of the system through negotiation with local residents. The Muslim town in France can, therefore, be viewed as a space that embodies both the difficulties and possibilities of integrating migrants.
Key words: France, Paris, the Goutte d’Or district, Islam, laïcité, Prayer on the street