Vol.68 No.1 (2016)
Roles of Transitional Group Home in Community Care for People with Mental Disorders:Creation of ‘Spaces of Care’ (1)
An Overview of Japanese Urban Systems Based on an Analysis of Internal Migration in 2010 and Regional Development Policies (22)
Foxtail Millet Trade Between Korea and Manchuria in the Interwar Period Through the Customs Records of Sinuiju: One Aspect of Japan’s Food Supply System (44)
Trends in High School Geography and the Prospects for Geography Education (66)
The National Maps of Japan Compiled by the Tokugawa Shogunate (79)
Book Reviews (94)
Outline of Special Presentation in Annual Meeting 2015 (98)
News: Part 1 (118)
News: Part 2 (141)
Roles of Transitional Group Home in Community Care for People with Mental Disorders: Creation of ‘Spaces of Care’
Graduate student, Ochanomizu University
Transitional group homes for people with mental disorders are administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government under the Services and Supports for Persons with Disabilities Act. In this article, the author use the analytical concepts of ‘spaces of care’ and ‘in-between spaces’ to investigate the instrumental roles of these homes in community care. Results were obtained using empirical material from qualitative research conducted with staff members and residents in ‘R’ city, Tokyo. The following were obtained: to leave psychiatric hospitals, residents move into transitional group homes because of their conditions; no choice of residence in the community was associated with deteriorated family relationship, and no tools were available to change their environment. The choice of moving to a traditional group home did not necessarily reflect residents’ intentions. Nevertheless, after moving to the home, residents showed new subjectivity and attained self-worth through ‘spaces of care’ created with staff members and other residents through non-conditional positive interactions and empathic warmth in the meeting room in the home, and found hopes for life. Staff members evaluated transitional group homes as ‘in-between’ spaces adapted to government’ policy, with this space regarded as transitional to living oneself in the community as a disabled’ person with independence. For clients, however, these homes are important physical and social spaces that facilitate movement to different space of hope.
Key words: people with mental disorders, transitional group home, community care, spaces of care, subjectivity, Tokyo
An Overview of Japanese Urban Systems Based on an Analysis of Internal Migration in 2010 and Regional Development Policies
Emeritus professor of Hiroshima University
The primary aim of this paper is to review the regional structure of Japanese urban systems through an analysis of inter-municipality migration (both gross and net migration). This is followed by a review of the viability of the recently-implemented Japanese regional development policies (Renkei-Chusu-Toshiken and Teiju-Jiritsuken), based on the results of the analysis of Japanese urban systems outlined in part one. Owing to the analysis of gross- and net-migration, Japanese urban systems hierarchically consist of Tokyo, regional centers, prefectural capitals and small and medium-sized cities. However, in metropolitan regions and the regions where cities are densely located special hierarchical structure of cities is developed. As there are close relationships of gross migration between neighboring regional centers, the improved Pred-type structure is recognized as a form hidden under the Christaller-type hierarchical structure of urban systems. Similarly, it is noticeable that Osaka city has declined remarkably in comparison with the population census of 1980. In Japanese urban systems regional centers and prefectural capitals play the important role of a ‘pump’ to relocate large numbers of people from the surrounding areas into the Tokyo-metropolitan area. Therefore, even if promoting the development of 61 cities as proposed in Renkei-Chusu-Toshiken will contribute to the formation of a ‘dam of population’, this could also promote the decline of small and medium-sized cities as well as rural municipalities by increasing absorption of their populations. Therefore, it is necessary to support small and medium-sized cities by implementation of a regional development plan.
Key words: improved Pred-type model, urban system, internal migration, plan of Teiju-Jiritsuken, plan of Renkei-Chusu-Toshiken
Foxtail Millet Trade Between Korea and Manchuria in the Interwar Period Through the Customs Records of Sinuiju: One Aspect of Japan’s Food Supply System
Faculty of Education, Yamaguchi University
The aim of this paper is to reveal an aspect of East Asian food trading in the interwar period. Geographical patterns of the food trade were studied through the customs records of Sinuiju port, with special reference to foxtail millet imported from Manchuria to Korea under Japanese rule. Shipping patterns and destination patterns of foxtail millet were quite different from the patterns of other foods such as fish, fruit, rice and soybeans. The destinations of these foods were big cities for urban consumption, but foxtail millet was shipped to many small towns for rural consumption. The major shipping regions of foxtail millet were mainly located in the southern part of Manchuria, where Japan held influence, and the major destination regions were mainly located in northern Korea which had become a new rice-producing area under Japanese rule, though it had previously been a foxtail millet growing area. In this sense, though Japan tried to construct a food self-sufficiency system within the territory of the empire, it was not successful. A self-sufficient rice production system within the territory had been constructed, but the supply systems for other grains that supported rice production in Korea had not. It is quite thought-provoking to discuss contemporary Japan’s grain supply that is heavily dependent on foreign foods.
Key words: interwar period, food trade, foxtail millet, Manchuria, Korea, Sinuiju
Trends in High School Geography and the Prospects for Geography Education
Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Geography, currently taught as part of the geography and history course, is expected to become a separate compulsory subject in high school. Many people who support geography have a strong desire that geography will become a compulsory subject in high school. The possibility of this appears to be high these days. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process involved in creating a compulsory subject, the discussions that must be held in government and the additional aspects of the reality of geography as a compulsory subject in high school. Integration of learning about geography from elementary school through high school is extremely important for formation of the personality, international understanding, life education and preparation for a career. The requirements for geography have been discussed in government, within the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. For geography to become a compulsory subject, its curriculum needs to be arranged and formulated. In this way a geography curriculum that is integrated from elementary school to high school would be constructed. It is believed that the possibility of geography becoming a compulsory subject in high school has become high in recent years. Under these circumstances, many people who are involved in the field of geography will have to cooperate in order to achieve realization of its status as a compulsory subject. In addition, after geography becomes a compulsory subject, a stronger cooperation system will be needed among geography organizations
Key words: compulsory subject, geography education, high school, Japan
The National Maps of Japan Compiled by the Tokugawa Shogunate
Former Professor of Yamaguchi University
In recent years, research on the provincial map and national map of Japan was promoted, and the need emerged to correct the erroneous conventional view. By the way, introduction to overseas on the map projects of Edo shogunate was extremely small up to now. Therefore this report is intended to introduce a summary of the map projects of the shogunate government to the foreign country based on resent new results of research. Above all, a study would like to report an outcome of new research about the national map of Japan in Edo early stage when a condition of insufficiency was mistaken up to now. Next, while national map of Japan in shogunate was edited basically by joining of provincial maps in the whole country, I would like to make clear the difference in the manners of the joining in each time, and introduce the technical development process of the edit of national map of Japan.
Key words: so-called Keichō map of Japan, provincial map, Revolt of Shimabara, administrative inspector, method of direction surveying