Vol.74 No.2 (2022)
Changes in the Geography Education System in Japanese Secondary Education from the Meiji Era to World War II Period (1872–1945):
Focusing on Vocational Schools (111)
Reconsidering Overseas Emigration in Early Twentieth-century Okinawa:
The Case of Nakaoshi District, Haneji Village (133)
The “Therapeutic Landscapes” of Alcoholism in Japan:
Establishment of Self-Help Groups and Restructuring in the Yoseba (155)
Book Reviews (178)
Changes in the Geography Education System in Japanese Secondary Education from the Meiji Era to World War II Period (1872–1945): Focusing on Vocational Schools
Faculty of Education, Aichi University of Education
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the position of Geography as a subject in vocational schools from the Meiji era to the World War II period by referencing various laws and regulations, and to clarify the nature of
geography education as a departmental subject by comparing it with Civics and History courses that were offered during the same period. Unlike junior high schools and high schools for girls, which belonged to the same category of secondary education, vocational schools focused mainly on agriculture, industry, and commerce, which were considered necessary for vocational education, and Geography was not treated as a compulsory subject. On the other hand, Civics was made compulsory in vocational schools about 20 years earlier than Geography, because Civics was made compulsory because the contents of Civics were particularly important in supporting the national system. Geography, along with History, became compulsory in vocational schools eventually in 1937. Therefore, the year 1937 is a milestone in the history of Japan’s geography education system. In addition, by comparing geography education with history education and civics education, it became clear that geography education tried to emphasize objectivity and that it had a close relationship with history education.
Key words: vocational schools, from the Meiji Era to World War II period, geography education, history education, civics education
Reconsidering Overseas Emigration in Early Twentieth-century Okinawa: The Case of Nakaoshi District, Haneji Village
School of Humanities, Kwansei Gakuin University
This study aimed to reconsider the formation of an overseas emigration area in Okinawa during the first half of the twentieth century. The Nakaoshi district of Haneji village, from which many people migrated to Brazil, was selected as the study area. A variety of evidence was used to elucidate trends in migration, such as oral histories and the Japanese Immigration List in Brazil. The results showed that migration from Nakaoshi district increased after the land reform of 1903 and that many heads of households or their successors emigrated between the 1900s and 1940s. Some successors accumulated assets after migration and returned home to inherit the family property. Conversely, other successors remained at their destination and gave their children the option to go back to Okinawa and receive an education before returning overseas to prepare for generation change. In addition, when the heads of households moved, residents of their place of origin gained control over some household assets, while the mortuary tablets were moved to the migrating destination and family events took place away from the original community. This study thus clarified how, in Okinawa between the 1900s and 1940s, blood relations in the areas of origin expanded transnationally with emigration.
Key words: emigration, land reform, primogeniture, returning home, education, Juquia line
The “Therapeutic Landscapes” of Alcoholism in Japan: Establishment of Self-Help Groups and Restructuring in the Yoseba
Graduate Student, School of Humanities, Kobe University
This paper focuses on the yoseba (the space served as a catchment place of the unskilled labors), especially Kamagasaki in Osaka and Sanya in Tokyo, in the 1960s and 1970s, and examines the development of various recovery systems for alcoholics, using the concept of “therapeutic landscapes.” In Japan, male-centered drinking customs formed in modern times. As a result, alcoholism has been regarded as a male-specific disease. Medical institutions and Danshukai, a self-help group established in line with the Japanese patriarchal drinking custom, first included mainly alcoholics with family for treatment. The way homeless alcoholics were included
in the existing system led to them becoming an object of exclusion from recovery. It was foregrounded as a “problem” in the yoseba, where the homeless were treated as a source of supply for the male day-laborer force.
In Sanya, the limitations of the Danshukai and medical institutions gave rise to new actors and the development of the AA (Alcoholics Anonymous) organization. In Kamagasaki, doctors played a key role in securing the
combined support of Danshukai, the government, and private welfare organizations to help homeless alcoholics recover. This led to establishment of the “Osaka method,” which is the only method used by the Danshukai. In this way, the “therapeutic landscapes” for alcoholics differed according to the actors in each region and were produced in a historically contingent process.
Key words: alcoholism, therapeutic landscapes, Danshukai, Alcoholics Anonymous, yoseba